Quantum machine learning with parametrised quantum circuits has attracted significant attention over the past years as an early application for the era of noisy quantum processors. However, the possibility of achieving concrete advantages over classical counterparts in practical learning tasks is yet to be demonstrated. A promising avenue to explore potential advantages is the learning of data generated by quantum mechanical systems and presented in an inherently quantum mechanical form. In this article, we explore the applicability of quantum data learning to practical problems in high-energy physics, aiming to identify domain specific use-cases where quantum models can be employed. We consider quantum states governed by one-dimensional lattice gauge theories and a phenomenological quantum field theory in particle physics, generated by digital quantum simulations or variational methods to approximate target states. We make use of an ansatz based on quantum convolutional neural networks and numerically show that it is capable of recognizing quantum phases of ground states in the Schwinger model, (de)confinement phases from time-evolved states in the $Z_2$ gauge theory, and that it can extract fermion flavor/coupling constants in a quantum simulation of parton shower. The observation of nontrivial learning properties demonstrated in these benchmarks will motivate further exploration of the quantum data learning architecture in high-energy physics.