Developing scalable quantum algorithms to study finite-temperature physics of quantum many-body systems has attracted considerable interest due to recent advancements in quantum hardware. However, such algorithms in their present form require resources that exceed the capabilities of current quantum computers except for a limited range of system sizes and observables. Here, we report calculations of finite-temperature properties including energy, static and dynamical correlation functions, and excitation spectra of spin systems with up to four sites on five-qubit IBM Quantum devices. These calculations are performed using the quantum imaginary time evolution (QITE) algorithm and made possible by several algorithmic improvements, including a method to exploit symmetries that reduces the quantum resources required by QITE, circuit optimization procedures to reduce circuit depth, and error mitigation techniques to improve the quality of raw hardware data. Our work demonstrates that the ansatz-independent QITE algorithm is capable of computing diverse finite-temperature observables on near-term quantum devices.