A method is described to quantify thermal conductance and temperature distributions with nanoscale resolution using scanning thermal microscopy. In the first step, the thermal resistance of the tip-surface contact is measured for each point of a surface. In the second step, the local temperature is determined from the difference between the measured heat flux for heat sources switched on and off. The method is demonstrated using self-heating of silicon nanowires. While a homogeneous nanowire shows a bell-shaped temperature profile, a nanowire diode exhibits a hot spot centered near the junction between two doped segments. © 2012 American Chemical Society.