Phase Noise Analysis of Separately Driven Ring Oscillators

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In this paper, for the first time, the phase noise analysis of a Multi-loop Skew based Single Ended Oscillator (MSSROs) is derived and validated. Compared to the three stages of conventional ring oscillators (CROs), SDROs provide an equivalent oscillation frequency with improved phase noise with increasing stages. The primary distinction between these two designs (SDRO and three-stage CROs) is the inherent skew offset between the PMOS/NMOS gates caused by the unique connection. This skew offset is the fundamental cause of delay cell noise suppression; the SDROs have loosely coupled oscillators that run concurrently, forming multiple 3-stages of separately driven Ring Oscillators. As a result, a shaping function is derived in terms of skew offset, and simulating these with varying skew offset results in suppressing behavior. Additionally, we derived phase noise for a skew-based design and validated it in PDKs of 180nm and 65 nm. We plotted the thermal (flicker) noise contribution and found that increasing the number of stages leads to an approximately 1-2 dB reduction in phase noise while maintaining the same NMOS/PMOS size ratio. Finally, a 2-3 dB reduction in phase noise is achieved in MSSROs by incorporating the shaping function into phase noise equations.