# Periodic orbits and classical quantization conditions

## Abstract

The relation between the solutions of the time-independent Schrödinger equation and the periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system is examined in the case where neither can be found by the separation of variables. If the quasiclassical approximation for the Green's function is integrated over the coordinates, a response function for the system is obtained which depends only on the energy and whose singularities give the approximate eigenvalues of the energy. This response function is written as a sum over all periodic orbits where each term has a phase factor containing the action integral and the number of conjugate points, as well as an amplitude factor containing the period and the stability exponent of the orbit. In terms of the approximate density of states per unit interval of energy, each stable periodic orbit is shown to yield a series of δ functions whose locations are given by a simple quantum condition: The action integral differs from an integer multiple of h by half the stability angle times ℏ. Unstable periodic orbits give a series of broadened peaks whose half-width equals the stability exponent times ℏ, whereas the location of the maxima is given again by a simple quantum condition. These results are applied to the anisotropic Kepler problem, i.e., an electron with an anisotropic mass tensor moving in a (spherically symmetric) Coulomb field. A class of simply closed, periodic orbits is found by a Fourier expansion method as in Hill's theory of the moon. They are shown to yield a well-defined set of levels, whose energy is compared with recent variational calculations of Faulkner on shallow bound states of donor impurities in semiconductors. The agreement is good for silicon, but only fair for the more anisotropic germanium.