Olfaction, the sense of smell, has received scant attention from a signal processing perspective in comparison to audition and vision. In this paper, we develop a signal processing paradigm for olfactory signals based on new scientific discoveries including the psychophysics concept of olfactory white. We describe a framework for predicting the perception of odorant compounds from their physicochemical features and use the prediction as a foundation for several downstream processing tasks. We detail formulations for odor cancellation and food steganography, and provide real-world empirical examples for the two tasks. We also discuss adaptive filtering and other olfactory signal processing tasks at a high level.