Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications

Off-specular X-ray scattering studies of the morphology of thin films

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We discuss the scattering of X-rays from thin films at a surface or interface decorated with a morphology of islands and how these effects manifest themselves in the specular reflectivity and the diffuse (off-specular) scattering. We show how this technique has been used to study block copolymer films decorated with islands on the surface and the development of electrochemically induced pitting on a Cu electrode in an electrolyte solution.