Neuro-symbolic Models for Interpretable Time Series Classification using Temporal Logic Description
Most existing Time series classification (TSC) models lack interpretability and are difficult to inspect. Interpretable machine learning models can aid in discovering patterns in data as well as give easy-to-understand insights to domain specialists. In this study, we present Neuro-Symbolic Time Series Classification (NSTSC), a neuro-symbolic model that leverages signal temporal logic (STL) and neural network (NN) to accomplish TSC tasks using multi-view data representation and expresses the model as a human-readable, interpretable formula. In NSTSC, each neuron is linked to a symbolic expression, i.e., an STL (sub)formula. The output of NSTSC is thus interpretable as an STL formula akin to natural language, describing temporal and logical relations hidden in the data. We propose an NSTSC-based classifier that adopts a decision-tree approach to learn formula structures and accomplish a multiclass TSC task. The proposed smooth activation functions for wSTL allow the model to be learned in an end-to-end fashion. We test NSTSC on a real-world wound healing dataset from mice and benchmark datasets from the UCR time-series repository, demonstrating that NSTSC achieves comparable performance with the state-of-the-art models. Furthermore, NSTSC can generate interpretable formulas that match with domain knowledge.