Network localization and navigation give rise to a new paradigm for communications and contextual data collection, enabling a variety of new applications that rely on position information of mobile nodes (agents). The performance of such networks can be significantly improved via the use of cooperation. Therefore, a deep understanding of information exchange and cooperation in the network is crucial for the design of location-aware networks. This article presents an exploration of cooperative network localization and navigation from a theoretical foundation to applications, covering technologies and spatiotemporal cooperative algorithms. © 2010 IEEE.