In this article, we develop a microeconomic model of normative firm behavior under the incentive of a research and development (R&D) tax credit. The model is based on the well-known concept of a two-factor learning model in which R&D expenditures and manufacturing capacity expansion are the principle determinants of cost reduction in a new technology product. We distinguish between the behavior of start-up firms and ongoing firms and study the potential impacts of progressively larger R&D tax credits. We find highly significant differences in the potential impact of the credit on start-up firms versus ongoing firms. We also find that the credit can significantly impact optimal product pricing of the technology when introduced into the marketplace. We examine the implications of this latter fact on the overall social cost of the R&D tax credit.