# Lower Bound for Electron Spin Entanglement from Beam Splitter Current Correlations

## Abstract

We determine a lower bound for the entanglement of formation of pairs of electron spins injected into a mesoscopic conductor. The bound can be expressed in terms of experimentally accessible quantities, the zero-frequency current correlators (shot noise power or cross correlators) after transmission through an electronic beam splitter and can be used to gain information about the entanglement from experiment. Spin relaxation ([Formula presented] processes) and decoherence ([Formula presented]) during the ballistic coherent transmission of carriers are taken into account within Bloch theory. A variable inhomogeneous magnetic field gives rise to a useful lower bound for the entanglement of arbitrary states. The decrease in entanglement due to thermally mixed states is studied. Both the entanglement of the output of a source (entangler) and [Formula presented] can be determined from current correlators. © 2003 The American Physical Society.