# Iterative methods for solving Ax = b, GMRES/FOM versus QMR/BiCG

## Abstract

We study the convergence of the GMRES/FOM and QMR/BiCG methods for solving non-symmetric systems of equations Ax = b. We prove, in exact arithmetic, that any type of residual norm convergence obtained using BiCG can also be obtained using FOM but on a different system of equations. We consider practical comparisons of these procedures when they are applied to the same matrices. We use a unitary invariance shared by both methods, to construct test matrices where we can vary the nonnormality of the test matrix by variations in simplified eigenvector matrices. We used these test problems in two sets of numerical experiments. The first set of experiments was designed to study effects of increasing nonnormality on the convergence of GMRES and QMR. The second set of experiments was designed to track effects of the eigenvalue distribution on the convergence of QMR. In these tests the GMRES residual norms decreased significantly more rapidly than the QMR residual norms but without corresponding decreases in the error norms. Furthermore, as the nonnormality of A was increased, the GMRES residual norms decreased more rapidly. This led to premature termination of the GMRES procedure on highly nonnormal problems. On the nonnormal test problems the QMR residual norms exhibited less sensitivity to changes in the nonnormality. The convergence of either type of procedure, as measured by the error norms, was delayed by the presence of large or small outliers and affected by the type of eigenvalues, real or complex, in the eigenvalue distribution of A. For GMRES this effect can be seen only in the error norm plots. © J.C. Baltzer AG, Science Publishers.