SPIE Advanced Lithography 2007
Conference paper

Fluoroalcohol materials with tailored interfacial properties for immersion lithography

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Immersion lithography has placed a number of additional performance criteria on already stressed resist materials. Much work over the past few years has shown that controlling the water-resist interface is critical to enabling high scan rates (i.e. throughput) while minimizing film pulling and PAG extraction (i.e. defectivity). Protective topcoat polymers were developed to control the aforementioned interfacial properties and emerged as key enablers of 193 nm immersion lithography. Achieving the delicate balance between the low surface energies required for high water contact angles (generally achieved via the incorporation of fluorinated groups) and the base solubility required for topcoat removal is challenging. More recently, additional strategies using fluoropolymer materials to control the water-resist interface have been developed to afford topcoat-free resist systems. In our explorations of fluoroalcohol-based topcoat materials, we have discovered a number of structure-property relationships of which advantage can be taken to tailor the interfacial properties of these fluorinated materials. This paper will address the effect of structure on immersion specific properties such as water contact angle, aqueous base contact angle, and dissolution rate.