A dislocation-mediated model is presented for restacking phase transitions that have been observed in a variety of lamellar (liquid crystalline) systems. The model explains the existence of nonhexagonal crystalline (smectic)-B phases in terms of dislocation-induced tilting of hexagonally packed layers. Ordered dislocation arrays explain both the symmetry and the amplitude of observed modulations. It is likely that the model will also be applicable to modulated lipid-water phases. © 1984 The American Physical Society.