# Circumference, chromatic number and online coloring

## Abstract

Erdo{double acute}s conjectured that if G is a triangle free graph of chromatic number at least k≥3, then it contains an odd cycle of length at least k 2-o(1) [13,15]. Nothing better than a linear bound ([3], Problem 5.1.55 in [16]) was so far known. We make progress on this conjecture by showing that G contains an odd cycle of length at least Ω(k log logk). Erdo{double acute}s' conjecture is known to hold for graphs with girth at least five. We show that if a graph with girth four is C 5 free, then Erdo{double acute}s' conjecture holds. When the number of vertices is not too large we can prove better bounds on χ. We also give bounds on the chromatic number of graphs with at most r cycles of length 1 mod k, or at most s cycles of length 2 mod k, or no cycles of length 3 mod k. Our techniques essentially consist of using a depth first search tree to decompose the graph into ordered paths, which are then fed to an online coloring algorithm. Using this technique we give simple proofs of some old results, and also obtain several other results. We also obtain a lower bound on the number of colors which an online coloring algorithm needs to use to color triangle free graphs. © 2013 János Bolyai Mathematical Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.