Aerosol impacts on thermally driven orographic convection
Observations from the Dominica Experiment (DOMEX) field campaign clearly show aerosols having an impact on cloud microphysical properties in thermally driven orographic clouds. It is hypothesized that when convection is forced by island surface heating, aerosols from the mostly forested island surface are lofted into the clouds, resulting in the observed high concentration of aerosols and the high concentration of small cloud droplets. When trying to understand the impact of these surface-based aerosols on precipitation, however, observed differences in cloud-layer moisture add to the complexity. The WRF Model with the aerosol-aware Thompson microphysics scheme is used to study six idealized scenarios of thermally driven island convection: with and without a surface aerosol source, with a relatively dry cloud layer and with a moist cloud layer, and with no wind and with a weak background wind. It is found that at least a weak background wind is needed to ensure Dominica-relevant results and that the effect of cloud-layer moisture on cloud and precipitation formation dominates over the effect of aerosol. The aerosol impact is limited by the dominance of precipitation formation through accretion. Nevertheless, in order to match observed cloud microphysical properties and precipitation, both a relatively dry cloud layer and a surface aerosol source are needed. The impact of a surface aerosol source on precipitation is strongest when the environment is not conducive to cloud growth.