This paper presents a new method for three-dimensional camera calibration in which the rotation parameters are decoupled from the translation parameters. First, the rotation parameters are obtained by projecting three sets of parallel lines independently of the translation parameters and the imaging distance from the lens to the image plane. The virtual line passing through the image center, which is calculated by perspective projection of a set of parallel lines, depends only on the rotation parameters. Next, the translation parameters and the imaging distance are analytically obtained. Experimental results are used to show how the camera model can be accurately reconstructed in an easily prepared environment. © 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.