# A bandwidth sharing theory for a large number of HTTP-like connections

## Abstract

There has been tremendous progress in understanding how bandwidth is shared by TCP-like connections. By associating each TCP-like connection with a utility function, the bandwidth sharing problem of TCP-like connections can be modelled as a distributed optimization problem for utility functions. However, little is known on how bandwidth is shared by HTTP-like connections through their utility functions at the TCP level. One of the main objectives of this paper is to provide a theory for bandwidth sharing of a large number of HTTP-like connections. Based on certain technical assumptions, we show that there is a utility function at the HTTP level for an HTTP-like connection and such a utility function can be derived from the utility function at the TCP level. The bandwidth is then shared by HTTP-like connections through utility functions at the HTTP level. Moreover, there is a probabilistic interpretation for how the utility function at the HTTP level is related to the utility function at the TCP level. This is done by relating utility functions to large deviation rate functions.