Greenhouse gas monitoring


Greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring has taken center stage in climate action as, by 2030, we must significantly reduce emissions if we must ensure that the global temperature increase is no more than 1.5 Degrees Celsius compared to the pre-industrial times. Carbon di oxide (CO2), Methane (CH4) and Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the main GHGs whose concentration in the atmosphere is increasing due to human activities. Our work on GHG monitoring focuses on the estimation, and source attribution of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions.

The four main approaches that we are working on to estimate emissions are static calculators, remote sensing satellites, process-based mechanistic models, and in-situ sensors.

We at IBM Research are developing a technology stack that integrates the different approaches for estimating emissions to address the limitations of the individual approaches. The downstream applications of emission estimation are hotspot identification, supplier selection, methane leaks from oil and gas wells, dairy farms, and emission management. The above-mentioned downstream applications often arise in food supply chains, oil and gas wells, and power plants.